I agree that motorists should not be overburdened with the responsibility of improving air quality and tackling climate change. It is crucial that we strike a fair and sustainable balance between keeping the cost of living as low as possible for ordinary hardworking people whilst meeting our obligations towards environmental protection.
I think it is important to remember that despite significant improvements in air quality over recent decades, air pollution is still having an impact on people's health. Air quality is the largest environmental risk to public health in the UK. In addition, the UK has challenging legal obligations in relation to NO2 limits and we are required to achieve compliance in the shortest time possible.
As a result, Ministers have directed sixty-one local authorities to develop local plans likely to achieve compliance. It is for local authorities to determine the measures that will enable them to comply with legal NO2 limits in the shortest possible time, and charging is just one possible measure. Local authorities are also able to bid for additional money from a £220 million fund to minimise the impact of local plans on individuals and businesses.
More widely, I am glad that action is being taken to drive forward innovation in the vehicle industry which results in clean, affordable technology. Ministers have set out a clear mission to put the UK at the forefront of the design and manufacturing of zero emission vehicles and for all new cars and vans to be effectively zero emission by 2040.
I would also note that fuel duty in 2018 will remain frozen for an eighth successive year which will save the typical driver £160 a year on average. I believe this shows a commitment to help hardworking people as we transition towards a clean economy.